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老人与海Chapter 4——尹红芝老师的校本课程
文章来源:原创  作者:KC  发布时间:【2021-5-13 16:50:12】  文章录入:GLX  浏览: 453 次

The Old man and the Sea Chapter4 An Even Fight

Reading aims:

1.To read the lines for plots and language use.

2.To read beyond the lines for the “iceberg under the sea”.

Teaching procedures:

Review of the previous chapter

At noon on the 85th day, the big marlin swallowed the bait. The big marlin dragged the old man's boat all the way north. For the first time the old man saw the big marlin, he was amazed and excited by its length. Although the old man was short of food, his right hand was injured, his left hand was cramped from time to time, and the boat would be pulled over by the big fish at any time, he decided to chase the big marlin to death with amazing perseverance and experience.

Plot of this chapter

As the sun sets, the old man tries to give himself confidence by remembering in great detail the time when he wrestled with the great negro. Then he catches a dolphin to eat when he uses the oars to increase the drag.He continues to battle the marlin although he feels weak and dizzy and he convinces himself four times to sleep.He sees the huge fish and prepare his harpoon on the fish's third circle.

We have divided the chapter into 6 parts. Now let’s read part by part.

Part1, a memory, from para1 to para4. In this part, in order to give himself more confidence, the old man recalled a hand game he played against a strong negro when he was young. The game lasted one day and one night, and finally he had the negro beaten.

Part2, a dolphin, from para5 to para10. In this part, the old man caught a dolphin and saved it to eat later. In para9, we can see the dolphin and the old man’s action vividly. The author uses simple, concrete, specific words, along with simple sentences combined with “and” to convey accurate details, making the depiction vivid and picturesque.

Part3, a “leisure” time, from para11 to para29. The old man thought a lot. He thought he had an advantage over the fish in the question of sustenance(食物). Given the manner and great dignity of the fish, no one is worthy to eat the noble fish. In para11, according the movement of the water against his hand, the old man predicted the fish was slower, and in para12, the old man used the oars to slow the fish. Both showed the old man is a skillful and expert fisherman.

Part4, a meal time, from para30 to para38. In para31, the old man used his knife to deal with the dolphin neatly and skillfully. And based on his rich fishing experience, he got two flying fish inside the maw of the dolphin. The meal was prepared, but in para37, we can infer that the uncooked dolphin without salt or limes tasted terrible. Anyhow, the old man chewed the dolphin well and didn’t vomit.

Part5, a snap, from para39 to para46. The old man persuaded himself to sleep. Being cautious and thoughtful, the old man made good preparations before he slept( para41&42). When he was asleep, he dreamed again. He dreamed of porpoises, dreamed that he was in the village on his bed and dreamed of the beach and lions.

Part6, a real fight, from para47 to para106. The old man woke with the jerk(猝然一动)of his right hand fist coming up against his face. The real fight between the old man and the big fish began. The fish jumped again and again, which filled the sacks along its back with air, leaving it unable to go down the sea. The fish started to circle when the sun was rising the third time since the old man had put to sea. The old man controlled the line carefully and skillfully. Two hours later, the fish had risen. But at that time, the old man was so exhausted that he felt faint and dizzy. But he persisted(坚持) with his strong willpower. On the third turn, the old man saw the fish first, and was astonished(震惊) at the bulk(体积) of the fish. In para88-89, the author gives us enough factual details to describe the fish vividly. Then, the even(均衡的,不相上下的) battle began.

Read para95-106, and fill in the table:

the old man’s battle with the big fish

 

The old man

The big fish

Round 1

(Para95)

pulled on the fish all that he could

turned a little on his side, then straightened himself and began another circle

Round2

(para98)

put all of his effort on, pull with all his strength

pulled part way(部分地)over and then righted himself and swam away

Round3

(para101)

he nearly had the fish

righted himself and swam slowly away

Round4

Twice more, it was the same on the turns.(para105)

Round5

That’s all for plots of part6. In this part, different expressions of “放线收线”are used, making the depiction more accurate and factual. E.g. “放线para47:the line rushed out; they were feeding smoothly; line was racing out . para51:the line went out and out and out; he was ceding(放弃、割让) line. Para65:it started out. Para 73:the old man gave up a little line. “收线para53: get line. Para64: line began to come in; pull in line. Para75:gain line. Para78: recover any line; brought in all the line.

Learning from this, we should use words accurately and specifically in our writing. For example, different expressions of “”: laugh大笑, smile微笑, giggle咯咯地笑、傻笑, chuckle轻声笑、暗自笑。say, murmur低语, shout大声说,呼喊 add补充说, declare公布、宣布 protest申辩insist:坚持说。

As we know, The Old Man and the Sea is written based on the Principle of Iceberg, with “seven-eighths” of the story lying below the surface parts that show. Now let’s analyse some examples to learn about the principle.

①Think about the meaning behind “the left hand as a traitor”.

本句用名词“traitor”作隐喻,比喻他的左手总是不听他的吩咐,总是背叛他。这句对左手背叛比喻的描写有更深层的含义。海明威在创作《老人与海》的年月正值麦卡锡主义在美国猖獗横行,民主与进步的力量遭到疯狂的迫害,某些一度左倾的作家“在拼命地向麦卡锡道歉”,告密者成为名利双收的“爱国者”和“民族英雄”。海明威用含蓄象征的比喻手法表示了对这“叛徒似的左手”极大的鄙视。

②Read para20 again. Why “his determination to kill him never relaxed in his sorrow for him?

Although he pities the fish ,the old man knows the natural order “everything kills everything else” and also nourishes everything else. All creatures, including the old man and the marlin, fall subject to nature and so must eventually face destruction. Besides, to live meaningfully in nature’s endless cycle, one has to use his skills and what nature has given, to live with great fervor(热情) and then accept destruction with dignity(尊严/高贵). Therefore, the old man must kill the marlin and their battle is inevitable(不可避免的).

 ③Read para50 again. Why the old man wished for “the boy” again?

As the old man is mentor(导师), spiritual father, and old age, the boy is pupil, son and youth. In a moment of crisis(危机), he needs the boy’s love and respect to support his soul. He relies on the “trick”(把戏、诡计) of imaginative vision to draw into himself the youthful vigor(活力) and inspiration(鼓舞) he needs. In fact, the hand game and the lions serve the same function. The old man gets strength and spiritual nourishment(营养品)from his youthful self , from the negro(黑人), and from the lions which have the same qualities of greatness, nobility(高贵), vitality(生命力、活力) and strength as the old man’s youthful self.

④What do the old man’s dream scenes indicate?

梦是人欲望满足和愿望的达成,在一定程度上反映出主人公的心理活动。

海豚:一度被认为是人类的朋友,象征着某种帮助性力量,表明老人此刻希望得到帮助与宁静。

渔村:对家的渴望和对孤立无援现状的担忧。

狮子:代指老人强有力的人格力量。狮子的意象唤起老人的超我,为其注入精神力量。

⑤Think about the symbolic meaning of the marlin.

The marlin is more than a fish, and it symbolizes a remarkable honor and ambitious goal. The old man puts onto the marlin the same qualities that he has, admires and hopes to pass on: nobility of spirit, greatness in living, faithfulness to one’s own identity(身份), endurance, beauty and dignity. Locked in battle for 3 days, the old man and the marlin are closely connected. The old man first pities and admires the fish, and then empathizes with it(与之产生共鸣). That’s why the old man calls the fish “he”, “brother”.

⑥Summarize the old man’s qualities.

nobility of spirit, greatness in living, faithfulness to one’s own identity(身份), endurance, beauty and dignity, optimistic, calm, cautious, skillful and experienced, kind, a tough guy...

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